In response to the constant demand for improved performance and increased efficiency from vessel operators, a number of marine diesel manufacturers have either upgraded their existing engines, expanded current series or developed entirely new models. Additionally, new environmental standards, such as those regulating nitrogen oxide emissions, have also played a key role in the introduction of and research into new diesels. Most major marine engine manufacturers are investing heavily into research programs to develop new reduced emission diesels. Some, in fact, are introducing models which use LNG or even LPG.
Wartsila Diesel, for example, recently tested its Vasa 32 engine on LPG, which is extremely clean burning. According to Wartsila, the Vasa 32 engine tests showed very promising results, and a pilot plant is expected to be started within the next few months. Wartsila Diesel is reportedly the first diesel manufacturer to test LPG in medium-speed engines utilizing high-pressure fuel injection.
"Inside Diesel Power" is a brief examination of some of the latest solutions for the 1990s from the world's leading marine diesel engine manufacturers for propulsion and shipboard power applications. For further information on any of the marine diesel engines discussed in this review, circle the appropriate post-paid card bound into the back of this issue.
ALASKA DIESEL ELECTRIC The Lugger L6140AL, L6170A and L12V140A diesels from Alaska Diesel Electric, Inc., Seattle, Wash., are targeted for the commercial user whose main concerns are low life cycle costs and low fuel consumption. The L6140AL, an in-line six, has a continuous rating of 470 hp at 1,800 rpm, a medium rating of 550 hp at 2,100 rpm, and a maximum rating of 630 hp at 2,100 rpm. The engine is also used in a 330-kw 1,800-rpm Northern Lights marine generator set with the same powertake- off features.
A 170-mm bore provides the inline six-cylinder L6170A with 640- hp at 1,800 rpm continuous duty operation. It has a maximum rating of 825 hp at 2,100 rpm and a medium rating of 730 hp at 2,000 rpm. The 170 is the most recent of the Luggers to be put in service. Soon to be delivered will be the 12-cylinder L12V140A, rated at 950 hp at 1,800 rpm. It has a rating of 1,300 hp at 2,100 rpm for high-speed applications. The power output is maximized by its after-cooler design. Alaska Diesel Electric manufactures propulsion units from 87 hp to 1,300 hp and Northern Lights Marine Generator sets from 5 kw to 330 kw.
For further information on Alaska Diesel Electric, CATERPILLAR Caterpillar, Inc., offers three distinct engine families—the 3400, 3500 and 3600—to meet the needs of its marine customers.
The 3600 diesel engine series is offered in two distinct configurations— distillate and heavy fuel— each optimized to provide the lowest operating cost on the fuel used. The Cat 3600 engine, fully optimized for distillate fuel operation, can be economically converted at a convenient overhaul point to an equally optimized heavy fuel configuration. The heavy fuel 3600 model is available in speeds from 720 to 1,000 rpm, with power outputs ranging from 218 to 280 hp per cylinder. Models are available in six- and eight-cylinder in-line versions and 12- and 16-cylinder "V" configurations, providing as much as 4,480 hp. Caterpillar recently delivered its 500th engine in its 3600 Family to a shipyard in Holland for installation aboard the M.B. Thames. The model 3606 was rated at 2,146 hp at 900 rpm.
Caterpillar's 3500 diesel engine family includes three versions—V- 8, V-12 and V-16. Designed to lower fuel consumption, oil and maintenance costs, the four-stroke, directinjection 3500 diesel engine family is available in speeds from 1,200 to 1,800 rpm, with power outputs as high as 2,200 hp.
Caterpillar 3400 marine diesels provide power from 275 to 1,000 bhp (205-746 kw), with three models available—Cat 3406, 3408 and 3412—the company's largest selling marine diesels.
For free literature detailing the Cat marine diesel engine line, COLTEC The Fairbanks Morse Engine Division, Coltec Industries, offers a complete line of modern marine medium-speed diesel engines, ranging in power from 640 to 29,322 bhp. Fairbanks Morse currently manufactures the largest mediumspeed diesel in the U.S., the Colt- Pielstick PC4.2. The U.S. Navy's Henry J. Kaiser Class (T-AO-187) fleet oilers are each powered by a pair of 10-cylinder PC4.2s, producing over 16,000 bhp.
According to Fairbanks Morse, the PC4.2 marine engines are 60 percent more fuel efficient than some gas turbines and require less engine room space than some slowspeed diesel engines.
Besides the PC4.2, Fairbanks Morse also manufactures the PC2 Series, a four-cycle turbocharged engine. Colt-PielstickPC2 mediumspeed diesels propel the U.S. Navy's dock landing ship class (LSD). Available in a 6- to 18-cylinder range in "V" and in-line configurations, the PC2 powers over 1,400vessels worldwide, totaling 2,200 engines and 15.3 million hp.
Available as a blower scavenged or turbocharged model, Fairbanks Morse two-cycle opposed piston (OP) engine has proven to be an efficient and reliable design for over 50 years. Upgraded and modified, the OP continues to be a popular choice for over 45 different classes of U.S. Navy vessels, as well as applications in towboats,tugs and ferries, offshore platforms, emergency standby generators and diesel-electric power plants.
For free literature detailing Fairbanks Morse, Coltec Industries marine diesels, DAIHATSU DIESEL Daihatsu medium-speed diesel engines, reduction gears, and systems for use as marine propulsion plants are original developments of Daihatsu Diesel Mfg. Co., Ltd., and are specially designed to feature durable construction and total economy.
Daihatsu manufactures four marine diesel engine series—M, DLM, DKM, and DVM models—ranging in power output from 200 to 6,000 hp in single unit installations. The four-stroke M Series features three in-line six-cylinder models, ranging from 240 hp at 1,850 rpm to 430 hp at 1,800 rpm.
The DLM Series has 11 in-line models with either six or eight cylinders. The in-line diesels range in power output from 600 hp at 1,350 rpm to 4,200 hp at 500 rpm.
The DKM Series incorporates two in-line models, one a six cylinder and the other an eight cylinder, ranging in power from 3,000 hp at 720 rpm to 4,000 hp at 720 rpm. The DVM Series has six "V" models, three 6- and three 8-cylinder diesels, ranging in power from 2,100 hp at 900 rpm to 6,000 hp at 600 rpm.
Models with bores of 240 mm or more of the DLM, DVM and DKM Series can burn heavy fuel oil. For free literature detailing Daihatsu diesels, DETROIT DIESEL Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) provides a complete line of premium marine engines.
For crew boats, fire boats and patrol boats, where speed is a critical factor and reliability a must, Detroit Diesels are highly regarded for easy starting, immediate acceptance of load, quick acceleration and reliable high speed. DDC can provide premium engines up to 2,200 bhp.
Commercial marine engine power levels range from 107 hp in the 4-53 to 2,200 hp in the 16V- 149TI.
Detroit Diesels include: the compact V-8 8.2 Liter, with an output of up to 250 bhp; the Series 53, for smaller workboats, with up to 400 bhp; the Series 71, with up to 900 bhp; the Series 92, available in 6-, 8- , 12- and 16-V configurations, with up to 1,400 bhp; and the Series 149, for river towboats and ocean tugs, with up to 2,200 bhp.
For free literature detailing the complete family of DDC engines, DEERE POWER The first marine power plants offered by Deere Power Systems Group are its four-cylinder 300 Series 4039 and 4045 and six-cylinder 400 Series 6076.
Long-established in the construction, agriculture and forestry industries, with over 3 million diesel engines delivered, Deere has drawn on this experience to design and build its four- and six-cylinder marine diesels The high-speed 4039DFM for workboat propulsion power provides 80 hp at 2,500 rpm, while for genset applications, it supplies 43 kw at 1,800 rpm.
The second diesel of the 300 Series, the 4045TFM, provides 115 hp at 2,400 rpm for propulsion applications, and 75 kw at 1,800 rpm for auxiliary power uses.
The largest marine diesel offered by Deere is the six-cylinder 400 Series 6076AFM. The in-line fourcycle model boasts 250 hp at 2,200 rpm as main propulsion and 187 kw at 1,800 for genset usage.
For free literature fully describing the 300 and 400 Series marine diesels from Deere Power Systems, EMD The Electro-Motive Division (EMD) of General Motors produces diesel power for marine propulsion, offshore and land-based oil well drilling rigs, power generation and other industries.
A complete line of GM/EMD engines is available to met requirements for marine propulsion and marine generator set applications. A complete power package with engine, reverse-reduction gear or generator and accessories is available from EMD power products distributors worldwide. The propulsion units are also available without skid mounting for direct application to the vessel structure.
For marine propulsion, EMD offers eight-, 12-, and 16-cylinder Roots Blown 645E6 Series engines and eight-, 12-, 16- and 20-cylinder turbocharged 645F7B and 710G7A diesels. The Roots Blown models offer a power range from 1,050 to 2,100 at 900 rpm, while turbocharged models have outputs from 1,600 to 4,200 at 800 rpm nd 1,700 to 4,500 at 900 rpm.
For genset applications, EMD engines cover a continuous output range from 745 to 3,220 kw at 60 Hz- 900 rpm and 570 to 2,865 kw at 50 Hz-750 rpm.
For free literature detailing EMD marine diesels, KHD Klockner-Humboldt-Deutz (KHD), one of the world's largest manufacturers of air-cooled engines, has introduced a new liquid-cooled engine series, the FM 1012/1013, with an integral or separate cooling system.
The company sees its role as a totally integrated supplier to plant and equipment manufacturers and, with its ranges of air-cooled, air-/oilcooled and new liquid-cooled diesel engines, alongside its broad range of medium and large water-cooled prime movers from 10 kw to 7,500 kw (13 to 10,058 hp), will be able to satisfy an enormous variety of shipbuilding and power generation applications. Certain models of the new series will start coming off the standard production lines by the end of this year. The complete new generation of 1012/1013 engines, with power outputs from 45 to 190 kw (60 to 255 hp) will be generally available by mid-1994.
Also offered by Deutz MWM, a subsidiary of the KHD Group, are: TBD 234 Series, with outputs rang ng from 141 to 1,224 hp; TBD 234Y Series, with outputs as high as 1,400 hp; TBD 604B Series, with outputs up to 2,630 hp; 628 Series, with outputs up to 3,600 hp; 640 Series, with outputs to 9,467 hp; and the 645 Series, with power outputs to 5,202 hp.
For free literature detailing the KHD line of marine diesels, KRUPP MAK Krupp MaK markets mediumspeed diesel engines in the power range from 1,073 to 14,751 hp. The German engine builder offers four different series, both as in-line and "V" configurations, with speeds between 425 and 1,000 rpm.
The goal of the current Krupp MaK C engine program is to incorporate the latest developments to improve economy, operational safety and exhaust emissions.
Krupp MaK recently added the M 20 engine series to its mediumspeed diesel line.
The M 20 is a long-stroke engine with 200 mm diameter and a stroke of 300 mm in the output range from 900 to 2,700 kw (1,207 to 3,621 hp) at 1,000 rpm. The M 20 is available in six, 8 and 9 cylinders in-line and 12 and 16 cylinders in a "V" configuration with speeds between 900 to 1,000 rpm.
The M 20 is geared toward coastal and inland vessels both as main propulsion and auxiliary power applications. Krupp MaK reports the fuel consumption to be about 183 g/kwh.
The new model is suitable for both main propulsion and auxiliary power and can be operated on all established grades of heavy fuel oil. For free literature detailing the new M 20 diesel from Krupp MaK or any other the other medium-speed engines from the company, MAN B&W DIESEL MAN B&W is a wholly owned subsidiary of MAN Aktiengesellschaft Munchen and a leading manufacturer and designer of two-stroke and four-stroke diesel engines and exhaust gas turbochargers. MAN B&W has facilities in Augsburg and Hamburg, Germany, and Copenhagen, Frederikshavn and Holeby, Denmark, as well as over 30 licensees around the world. At the Augsburg Works, 20/27, 25/30,32/36,40/45,40/54,48/60,52/ 55 B and 58/64 Series medium-speed four-stroke marine diesel engines are manufactured, with a power range of 610 to 19,000 hp. Dual fuel engines with an output range from 550 to 2,205 hp are also built, as well as exhaust gas turbochargers for two- and four-stroke engines. The company's four-stroke diesel engine program has been developed to meet the market requirements of: lower fuel consumption; lower lube oil consumption; longer times between overhauls; and simplified engine maintenance.
Facilities at Copenhagen manufacture MC, L-MC, K-MC and S-MC Series slow-speed two-stroke diesel engines for marine and stationary applications in the output range from 1,350-67,080 hp.
The Holeby Works manufactures and four-stroke diesel gensets for seagoing, coastal and fishing vessels in the power range from 720- 5,400 hp, while the Frederikshavn Works offers complete model 28/32 and 23/30 Alpha propulsion systems and Alphatronic electronic remote control systems.
For free literature detailing MAN B&W Diesel's complete marine engine line, MTU A leading manufacturer of highspeed diesels, MTU offers liquidcooled, compact four-stroke engines.
Over 53,000 units are in operation, 16,000 of which are serving in main propulsion or ship service applications. MTU's marine engine program includes five engine series: 099,183, 396,595 and 1163. Propulsion power ratings for the engines range from 71 to 8,160 hp.
The 099 and 183 series both comprise turbocharged, turbocharged/ intercooled or naturally aspirated variants. The 099 series consists of 4- and 6-cylinder in-line engines, offering a broad marine power spectrum from 70 to 190 hp.
The 183 Series features 8-, 10-, and 12-cylinder "V" engines, with power from 229 to 738 hp.
The 396 Series includes 8-, 12- and 16-cylinder turbocharged and intercooled diesels offering power ratings from 912 to 3,004 hp at speeds between 1,650 and 2,000 rpm. The new 595 Series has been developed by MTU to meet "the commercial ship operator's technical and economical requirements of the 1990s." The series includes highperformance 12- and 16-cylinder marine models in the power range from 2,655 to 4,828 hp.
The most powerful engines offered by MTU, the 1163 Series, have an output range covering from 3,259 to 8,046 hp. Models are available in 12-, 16- and 20-cylinder "V" configurations. For free literature detailing MTU diesels, NEW SULZER DIESEL In response to market demands, New Sulzer Diesel Ltd., a leading manufacturer of two- and fourstroke diesels, has designed their engines to meet the following criteria: reliability; fuel economy; costefficient design and low emissions.
The company's low-speed engine program comprises two basic models— the RTA-8 Series and the RTA- 2 Series. The RTA-8 Series are suitable for relatively fast vessels that have a limited draft and restricted propeller diameter. The RTA-2 Series, on the other hand, is suitable for relatively slow ships for which optimum sailing speed is dependent upon such factors as fuel costs, capital costs and value of transported goods.
New Sulzer Diesel's four-stroke engine program includes—the ZA40, AT25, AS25 and S20.
The ZA40S engine has become one of the most popular in its class for marine and power generation applications. Over 240 ZA40S engines, totaling 2.29 million bhp have been ordered since their introduction in 1985.
The AT25, upgraded in 1987 in order to obtain full heavy fuel capability and fuel efficiency, incorporates the latest state-of-the-art design features for engines of its class. The long-stroke S20 engine, launched in 1988, is the smallest member of the Sulzer diesel engine family. Offered in in-line models with four, six, eight and nine cylinders, the S20 offers 700 to 1,960 bhp at speeds from 720 to 1,000 rpm. For complete information on New Sulzer Diesel two- and four-stroke engines, PAXMAN DIESEL Paxman Diesels Limited, part of the international company GEC Alsthom, manufactures high-speed Valenta and Vega diesels in the power range of 750 to 3,650 kw (1,006 to 4,895 hp). Paxman engines have been particularly popular in patrol boat and minesweeper vessel applications.
In the U.S., product support is provided by Paxman Diesel USA of Houston, Texas. The company offers complete after-sales support service for North America.
The most recent Paxman patrol craft success is the prestigious contract to supply Valenta propulsion engines to the U.S. Navy for its new Patrol Boat, Coastal (PBC) program. The Valenta 16RP200CM propulsion engines, four per vessel set, for the PBC program are currently being delivered to Lockport, La., shipbuilder BollingerMachine Shop & Shipyard, Inc. The first of the 170- foot vessels was recently delivered. These engines are the first of a total of 52 Valentas, comprising 13 boat sets, which Paxman is supplying to the U.S. Navy.
Prior to the PBC engine contract, Paxman received an order from the Royal Navy of Oman to supply Valenta engines for the 56- meter high-speed Province Class vessels. Each of the vessels will be powered by four Valenta 18-cylinder propulsion units, each rated at 4,550 bhp.
For free literature detailing Vega and Valenta engines from Paxman Diesel, C i r c l e 4 0 o n R e a d e r S e r v i c e C a r d MITSUBISHI In an effort to broaden its market appeal, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. extended the power range at lower end of its two-stroke UEC engine series with a new small bore diesel design. The Japanese firm added the330-mmbore UEC 33LSII, which is offered in four- and eightcylinder versions, covering an output range from 1,590-5,870 bhp at 158-210 rpms. The new model has a longer stroke as compared to the 370-mm stroke model, which was the smallest bore model in the UEC family prior to the UEC33LSII's introduction. The longer stroke provides enhanced fuel economy and the new design is said to offer high reliability and simplified maintenance. Earlier, Mitsubishihad added two large bore models to the UEC series for the bulker and very large crude carrier markets. One of the models, a 30,000-bhp six-cylinder 850-mm bore UEC85LSII, was recently commissioned in a Japanese VLCC. The other model, the 750-mm bore UEC 75LSII, was installed in the first of seven AP Moller VLCCs being built by the Odense yard in Denmark. For free literature detailing Mitsubishi diesels, C i r c l e 4 1 o n R e a d e r S e r v i c e C a r d VOLVO PENTA A wholly owned subsidiary of AB Volvo, Volvo Penta develops, designs manufactures and markets diesel and gasoline engines, marine transmissions and industrial components and accessories.
A popular choice for pleasure craft, Volvo Penta engines are also available for the workboat market.
The TAMD 162 is the largest and most powerful engine ever built by Volvo Penta. It is a turbocharged and aftercooled in-line six-cylinder diesel, with a light duty rating of 551 hp at 1,900 rpm, medium-duty rating of 490 hp at 1,900 rpm and heavyduty rating of 470 hp at 1,800 rpm. Two direct-injected, in-line sixes with turbocharging, the models TAMD 122 and TMD 122 offer a power range from 300 hp at 1,800 rpm to 450 hp at 2,000 rpm.
The TMD 102 is also based on the in-line, six-cylinder configuration. The TMD 102 offers 238 to 272 hp at speeds from 1,800 to 2,000 rpm. Other workboat engines from Volvo Penta include: the TAMD 71 and TAMD 61, with power ratings as high as 357 hp; the TMD 31 and 41, with power output as high as 200 hp; and the smaller two-cylinder 2002 and three-cylinder 2003 models.
For free literature detailing Volvo Penta workboat engines, WARTSILA DIESEL Wartsila Diesel North America, Inc., the U.S. subsidiary of the Wartsila Diesel Group, recently consolidated its operational functions for North America and the Caribbean in Chestertown, Md.
Eight regional sales and service facilities are located across the U.S. With the expanding technical and marketing staff and the integration of Wartsila Diesel, Stork-Wartsila Diesel and SACM Diesel businesses, the company has made a strong commitment to the North America market.
In 1990, Wartsila Diesel North America, Inc., purchased the Power System Division of Morrison Knudsen, now MKW Power Systems, Inc. In addition to marketing and servicing General Motors Corporation's EMD diesel engines, MKW Power Systems packages Wartsila Diesel engine systems, providing North America customers with U.S. engineered and installed components on fast turnaround schedules.
The Wartsila Diesel Group is a leading manufacturer of mediumspeed engines, with power outputs up to 22,000 bhp and 16,000 kw. The Wartsila family of engines include: the Vasa 22, 32 and 46; the SACM Diesel UD 45, 33, 30, 25, 23, and 18; the Stork-Wartsila Diesel SW 280, TM 410 and 620; Wartsila Nohab 25; and the Wartsila Wichmann 28.
For free literature fully detailing the Wartsila Diesel engine family, WESTINGHOUSE DIESEL Prompted by prospects presented by the Navy's Sealift program, Westinghouse, a leading supplier of advanced propulsion systems for the U.S. Navy, has teamed with New Sulzer Diesel Ltd., a leading supplier of medium-speed diesel engines for large ships, to provide diesel propulsion. Through its Westinghouse Marine Division, Westinghouse will supply low-speed RTAtype and medium-speed ZA40S model diesel engines.
The ZA40S generates up to 19,000 bhp, satisfying high power concentration and minimum space requirements, and allows engineering flexibility through the easy integration of high- and low-power engine combinations. Equally important, individual Sulzer Z-type engine operating times exceed 98,000 hours.
With more than 300 ZA40S engines in operation or on order, this modern engine has proven itself to be rugged, highly reliable, and efficient. It provides long intervals between overhauls, long range endurance, true heavy fuel capability, and consistently low lubricating oil consumption.
More than 1,215 Sulzer RTA engines are in service or on order.
These engines represent the latest in diesel engine technology, ensuring cost-effective propulsion for Navy and commercial ships.
The excellent performance of Sulzer low-speed RTA engines is the result of innovative, new piston ring and cylinder liner technology that ensures longer intervals between overhauls. In addition, this engine's low-speed, direct-drive configuration produces up to 62,400 bhp within an engine range of 54 to 196 rpm.
For free literature detailing the Westinghouse diesel engine program, STEWART & STEVENSON Stewart & Stevenson Services, Inc., with branches in Harvey, La., and Houston, Texas, is one of the world's largest distributors of De- troit Diesel and General Motors- EMD engines from 50 to 4,300 hp.
With a normal inventory of hundreds of diesel engines and generators, a staff of experienced mechanical, electrical, and marine engineers, along with 24-hour worldwide parts and service, Stewart & Stevenson offers an excellent support network to its customers.
Full service branches, two remanufacturing plants, and over 200 dealers are ready to provide full service to customers, from financing a vessel to training and technical support.
Stewart & Stevenson can provide custom-engineered power systems for all marine applications.
For free literature detailing the services, as well as the complete line of diesels supplied by Stewart & Stevenson, CUMMINS For over 70 years, Cummins Engine Company has been building marine engines. The Columbus, Ind., company's main propulsion engine output range stretches from 76 bhp to 1,385 bhp.
One of the company's most popular models is the compact, lightweight B Series. The series includes four- and six-cylinder models with displacements of 3.9 and 5.9 liters. The company's new 300-hp six-cylinder 6BTA59-M2 extends the top of the line of the B Series and provides excellent power-to-weight ratio. Some of the features of the B Series include: a watercooled Holset turbocharger and fully cast watercooled exhaust manifold; single-piece cross cylinder head design, which allows close cylinder spacing to minimize overall engine length while maximizing structural strength and ease of service; engine heat exchanger; gear-driven seawater pump; and mounted expansion tank for keel-cooled boats.
Over 5,600 Cummins distributors and dealers serving 153 countries provide sales and service support for Cummins diesels. This organization ensures the availability of service specialists and parts stock around the world.
For free literature detailing the full line of Cummins marine diesel engines, GMT A substantial investment plan is being undertaken by Italian shipbuilder and diesel engine manufacturer Fincantieri at its Trieste facility in the areas of design, production and research and development. Fincantieri, which is a shareholder of New Sulzer Diesel, builds Sulzer RTA low-speed and ZA40S mediumspeed diesels at the plant, as well as its own Grandi Motori Trieste (GMT) model medium-speed engines. Fincantieri has focused its development plans on upgrading the power of the GMT 550BL and GMT A320 models. The GMT A320 is expected to be upgraded from 500 bhp to 600 bhp by extending its stroke from 360 mm to 390 mm. Also part of the Fincantieri Group is high-speed diesel manufacturer Isotta Fraschini. Suitable for propulsion aboard corvettes, fast patrol craft, harbor tugs, fireboats, or other similar vessels, Isotta Fraschini's ID 36 is a compact high-speed diesel with excellent power-to-weight characteristics.
A pair of low-magnetic model ID36-AM diesels provide propulsion power aboard the U.S. Navy's Coastal Minehunter (MHC) Class. For free literature detailing the full line of marine diesel engines offered by Fincantieri,